A preservative is a substance or chemical that is applied to things including food, beverages, pharmaceutical medications, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to keep them from decomposing due to microbial development or unwanted chemical changes. In general, there are two types of preservation: chemical and physical. Adding chemical components to a product is referred to as chemical preservation. Refrigeration and drying are examples of physical preservation techniques. Food additives with preservatives lower the risk of foodborne diseases, limit microbiological deterioration, and maintain freshness and nutritional quality. Dehydration, UV-C radiation, freeze-drying, and chilling are some physical strategies for food preservation. Techniques of chemical and physical preservation are occasionally combined.
NATURAL FOOD PRESERVATIVES:
In the category of natural food preservatives comes the salt, sugar, alcohol, vinegar etc. These are the traditional preservatives in food that are also used at home while making pickles, jams and juices etc.
Also the freezing, boiling, smoking, salting are considered to be the natural ways of preserving food. Coffee powder and soup are dehydrated and freeze-dried for preservation.
In this section the citrus food preservatives like citrus acid and ascorbic acid work on enzymes and disrupt their metabolism leading to the preservation
Sugar and salt are the earliest natural food preservatives that very efficiently drops the growth of bacteria in food. To preserve meat and fish, salt is still used as a natural food preservative.
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